What are the reserved keywords in Python

What are python reserved keywords?

When coding in the Python language there are particular python reserved words that the system uses, which cannot be accessed as a variable or a function as the computer program uses them to perform specific tasks.

When you try to use them, the system will block it and throws out an error. Running the below code in Python

import keyword
keywordlist = keyword.kwlist

Produces the below keyword values
['False', 'None', 'True', 'and', 'as', 'assert', 'async', 'await', 'break', 'class', 'continue', 'def', 'del',
'elif', 'else', 'except', 'finally', 'for', 'from', 'global', 'if', 'import', 'in', 'is', 'lambda', 'nonlocal',
'not', 'or', 'pass', 'raise', 'return', 'try', 'while', 'with', 'yield']

When writing your code, it is important to follow the following guidelines:

(A) Research the keywords first for the language you are writing in.

(B) Ensure that your programming language highlights keywords when used, so you can fix the issue.

(C) Setup your computer program in debug mode to highlight keywords use.

With some programs running into thousands of lines of code, with additional functions and variables, it can become harder to spot the problem, so good rigour in the initial stages of coding will help down the road any issues that you may find that need to fixed.

This code was run in Python version 3.8

Python Tutorial: How to validate data using tuples

Do you want to validate with Tuples, that is easy, making changes not easy.

In our recent video Python – how do I remove unwanted characters lists were used as a lookup to validate data that we need to be check for invalid data items. The most apparent difference between the two is that tuples are immutable, hence changing their values is not possible, making using them in real-time code a bit hazardous.

So why would you use Tuples?

That is a good question and sometimes not too obvious when you try to put examples down on paper, but here are some cases:

  • You want a set of values that will never change, no matter what.
  •  Use as a lookup that the program can check against, these could be called anywhere in your code.
  •  Make sure that you only process what is in the tuple; any additional data can be reported as erroneous, a form of error control.

Getting around the change limitations (well kind of)

This video looks at a simple few steps to take in a set of data, validate the id column aginst a tuple set of values and then show the differences on a separate output.

The code is then rerun after we add the original tuple to the error values found, to give a new tuple. As a result, the new output will show up with no errors.

To sum it all up

In a nutshell, Tuples are limited in what they can do, probably the best thing for them is:

  • Use your code as a reference for re-occurring values that need to be validated.
  •  Don’t use in your code to have updated tuples, use lists instead as you can update them in real-time.

how to validate cell values in excel

Estimated reading time: 2 minutes

Validating cells in Excel quickly – how to do it easily!
Are you working with large spreadsheets and looking to quickly at data validation exercise to save you time?

The aim would be to run your code and test it against some predefined rules you or your data analyst would have written to make sure it brings back the expected checks.

If you look at the below, this is the final output of this video, highlighting two cells that are over budget based on the companies predefined budget.

data validation example

The structure of this code can be broken down into the following steps:

  • Read in the excel file, see a previous example here How to import data into excel
  •  Run the first function,  checks if the spreadsheet cell value is over or under budget.
  •  Run the second function that takes the value from the first function and applies the colour red to the cell if it is over budget.



You can expand this code to incorporate more functionality, such as:

  • Change the colour of the cells, to have multiple colours returned.
  •  Update the two functions to include more business rules.
  •  You could check if the file is empty before processing as shown here How to check if a file is empty

Please subscribe to our YouTube channel, the button is the right-hand side of the page if you would like to see more like these.

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YouTube channel lists – Python Data Cleansing

Ever had a process where you received a set of data, and it took a bit of effort to cleanse the data, so it looks the way you want it?

The world of data processing and data exchanged between servers and organisations needs careful attention, one person’s idea of clean data might not be other persons, hence the difference between the two can lead to data issues.

Experian had an excellent article What is data cleansing? in that they talk about several factors about data:

  • It could be incorrect
  • and incomplete
  •  and Duplicated


One of the things they highlighted also is that under GDPR, organisations have to deal with more focus on data been accurate, complete and up to date.

We are putting together several videos in this area over time, so you will start to see them as they go up.

Please like and share through the social media buttons shared on the page here, thanks for watching!

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Python Tutorial: Add a column to a data frame

Estimated reading time: 1 minute

You have learnt addition, now learn how to add a column to a data frame!
In our last post on what are Python data frames, we introduced the concept,  but are you now searching how to add a column to a data frame?
To start, I was working away and wondering how I could accomplish this, as there were many posts about it.
Searching through the jungles of website articles, some topics of interest that gave me ideas whereas follows:
(A)List comprehension
(B) Lambda
(C) Numpy


Having tested the waters to see how you can approach:

After working through the above to:

  • Figure out how to use them.
  • Write some code to see how it all comes together.

The best thing to do was to put code into action!

Python for beginners or advanced programmers does not have to be hard!

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Support is on the way:

TutorialsPoint is an excellent resource if looking to understand some other examples see this post here: TutorialsPoint: Add Column

To see a related post on how to hide a column from a data frame look no further How to hide a column from a data frame

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